As the seasons change from summer to fall to winter, animals living in more northern climates have three options: migrate, hibernate or bulk up! One of the most amazing migrations is that of the monarch butterfly.
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|image: Kenneth Dwain Harrelson [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons|
Monarchs are the only butterflies to make a round-trip migration, similar to a bird. Other types of butterflies overwinter as either larva or pupa. Since adult butterflies depend on flowers for nectar they can't find food in areas where snow and ice are the norm.
In order to travel long distances (sometimes up to 3,000 miles!) they take advantage of warm pockets of air called thermals, and air currents. Each day they travel 5-100 miles until they reach their winter resting ground.
The monarchs that I see flitting about in the Northeastern part of the U.S. will head to Mexico, while those in the Northwestern part of the country spend their winter in California.
|image: USDA Forest Service|
Here are some ideas for learning about monarch butterflies at each age level.
- Role play the life cycle of a butterfly. Have students curl up in a ball to be an egg, then hatch and stretch and inch along like a caterpillar. Then they'll find a cozy spot and stay still for a bit while they are a pupae. Finally they are ready to climb out of their chrysalis and flap their wings as a butterfly. One of my favorite books to accompany this activity is Lois Ehlert's Waiting for Wings.
- If it is spring, you can watch a butterfly life cycle right in the classroom. With a live butterfly kit, or possibly with butterflies from your local butterfly conservatory, raise butterflies from eggs, then have a release party when you have adults.
- Read a story and then show on a globe or map where the butterflies migrate to. Developmentally, maps are a little tricky for Early Childhood, but you will at least be conveying the message that they go from one place to another during migration. One of my favorite monarch migration picture books to read to little ones is Gotta Go, Gotta Go by Sam Swope. The rhyming text and adorable pictures are perfect for a read-aloud.
- Watch and learn about monarch life cycles with the Kratt Brothers with this lesson plan and video from Wild Kratts on PBS. These resources are available through PBS LearningMedia, which I highly recommend exploring. There are tons of great resources and short video clips to hook students before you delve into your hands-on lessons.
- Read Hurry and the Monarch a cute tale of a monarch's life cycle through migration, with lovely illustrations.
- Explore the migration maps at the Monarch Watch site. Go out and observe monarch butterflies and report your sitings too!
- Plan and research a butterfly garden. In the spring plant some butterfly friendly plants. Find ideas here.
- Build and observe a butterfly feeder. Directions here.
- Participate in some citizen science by reporting observations and analyzing migration data of many species including monarchs at the Journey North site.
- Get a monarch tagging kit here. Tag butterflies and monitor monarch migration through Monarch Watch.
- Track animal migrations on Movebank, then try some of the science projects you can do with this data at Science Buddies.
|image: William Warby [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons|
For other citizen science opportunities involving insects, read "Insect Investigations: Summertime Citizen Science".
Think monarchs are beautiful? I do! Find a great photo and links to monarch photography at the Growing With Science Blog.
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